Your cover letter may be the first form of communication you have with an employer. Addressing the cover letter properly can help you get a pass to the next stage of the job search process, but knowing how to address the letter correctly is important. It is particularly important when the letter is addressed to a woman. There are many ways to address a woman, depending on whether she's married or single, and based on the information presented in the job posting.
Whenever you are uncertain about how to address a woman in your cover letter, you can rely on using "Ms." followed by her last name. This helps avoid the mistake of referring to her incorrectly with "Miss" or "Mrs." This salutation also applies when you are uncertain if she holds a specific title such as a doctorate, advises Western State Colorado University's Career Service. If she holds a doctorate, the salutation is "Dr." followed by her last name, and it takes precedence over "Ms.," "Miss" or "Mrs."
Use "Miss" to address a woman in a cover letter if this is how she's referred in the job posting. For instance, "Dear Miss Smith." It is also the typical form used to address a woman when you know she is not married. If there is any uncertainty at all, refer back to using "Ms."
Use "Mrs." followed by the woman's last name in a cover letter if this is how she's referred in the job posting. "Mrs." is typically the form used for women who are married. When you are uncertain whether she is married or has kept her maiden name, refer back to using "Ms."
In some instances, you may have contact with an employer before having the chance to send a cover letter. She may tell you to call her by her first name. In this type of situation, address her by her first name in your cover letter as well. Other instances where the first name basis can apply in a cover letter is when there is email correspondence that's already begun and in each instance, she has signed off on it with her first name when writing to you.
About the Author
Wendy Lau entered the communication field in 2001. She works as a freelance writer and prior to that was a PR executive responsible for health care clients' written materials. Her writing experience include technical articles, corporate materials, online articles, blogs, byline articles, travel itineraries and business profile listings. She holds a Bachelor of Science in corporate communications from Ithaca College.
- Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images
Your contact details are placed at the top of the cover letter, on either the right or the left side. If you have trouble adhering to the space limit, omit your name from the contact details section; you will anyway be signing your name in the ending salutation.
Many mistakes occur here as the British and American notations differ. While the month is placed first and is followed by the date in the US version, the British notation gives the date first and the month afterwards. You should insert a comma between day and year in the American notation, but the British version requires no comma.
American and Canadian notations:
Month/Day/Year (March 15, 2014)
Day/Month/Year (15 March 2014)
It is common nowadays to indicate the date using only numbers—e.g. 05/10/2013—but it gives rise to misunderstandings. In the British notation, this would be 5 October 2013, but in the US, it would represent 10 May 2013. To avoid such misunderstandings, it is recommended to combine numbers and words in your notation.
Short and sweet
- Date in the US: March 15, 2014
- Date in the UK: 15 March 2014
The address of the recipient follows next. The recipient’s details must be stated in full, including the full name of the contact person. All the accessories of the company name and the designation of the contact person must be provided.
The greeting depends on the information available. If you know the name of the contact person, his/her name and surname must be included in the greeting. The salutation ‘Mr(.)’ is used for a man, while ‘Ms(.)’ is used for a woman. Use ‘Mrs(.)’ only if you know for a fact that the woman contact person is married. Otherwise, stick with the formal ‘Ms(.)’. Note that an academic title also belongs in the formal salutation and must be provided in the greeting accordingly.
Dear Mr(.) XY,
Dear Ms(.) XY,
Dear Prof. XY,
The dot after ‘Mr’/‘Ms’ depends on the style of English being used. In a UK application, there is no dot after the salutation and it just says ‘Mr XY’. If you are applying in the US, however, a point follows the salutation and you write ‘Mr. XY’.
In case no contact person is mentioned, look for a suitable contact or HR manager—e.g. via online research. The best option is to inquire directly at the company for the name, title and designation of the required contact person.
Note also that a personal greeting is preferred to an impersonal salutation. Use the impersonal salutation only if you absolutely cannot find a suitable contact person.
In the latter case, the following alternative greetings are possible:
Dear Hiring Manager(,)
Dear Recruiting Team(,)
Dear Sir or Madam(,)
The salutation, ‘To whom it may concern’, is not recommended. It sounds impersonal and gives the impression that you sent a standard letter to multiple companies at one go. The reader should feel that he/she has been addressed personally. Your letter must give the impression that you are applying to only this company because the position here is exactly what you seek.
Once again, comma use depends on the style of English being followed. A comma or punctuation mark after the salutation is usually absent in the British cover letter, but present in the American one.
Short and sweet
- Ascertain the name of the contact person if this is unavailable. It is best to call the company and inquire.
- In British English, the title is written without a dot (‘Ms XY‘); in American English, it is written with a dot (‘Mr. XY’).
- In the UK application, no comma follows the salutation; in the American application, a comma is placed after the greeting.
The subject differs in the American and British cover letters. If you apply in the US, the subject is left out. In the UK, however, it is common to write a subject in bold letters.
In the British English application, the subject provides a reference to, for example, a phone call, a personal conversation or a newspaper advertisement.