Phyllomedusa Bicolor Classification Essay


Taxonomy [top]


Scientific Name:Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert, 1772)
Common Name(s):
EnglishGiant Monkey Frog
SpanishRana Lemur Gigante
Taxonomic Source(s):Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published:2010
Date Assessed:2008-10-30
Assessor(s):Claudia Azevedo-Ramos, Enrique La Marca
Reviewer(s):Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in the Amazon Basin in Venezuela (Amazonas and Bolívar states), Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and the Guianas. It also occurs in the Cerrado habitat of Manhao state, Brazil. It has been recorded from 0-800m asl.
Countries occurrence:


Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; French Guiana; Guyana; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is common throughout its range.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a nocturnal tree frog. It has been found calling from the limbs of trees in tropical rainforest at heights of more than 2m above the water in a forest pond (Duellman 1997). Gorzula and Señaris (1999) reported a leaf-nest found about 2m above a forest pool. Tadpoles then develop in temporary waterbodies. They are also found in gallery forest in Cerrado.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are very few threats through its wide range, though it is probably impacted locally by very severe habitat loss, such as clear-cutting. It might benefit from road cuts through forest where individuals congregate to reproduce. There is currently an increased interest in the toxic compounds in the skin of this frog (which is used for hunting practices for several tribes of Amazonia). This might increase harvesting effort in the future, but at the moment, such utilisation is not considered to constitute a threat to the species. It is sometimes found in the international pet trade but at levels that do not currently constitute a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species' distribution encompasses several protected areas.

Phyllomedusa bicolor, also known as blue-and-yellow frog, bicoloured tree-frog, giant monkey frog,[2]giant leaf frog,[3] or waxy-monkey treefrog,[4] is a hylidfrog. It is found in the Amazon basin as well as some surrounding areas.[2]


Males measure 91–103 mm (3.6–4.1 in) and females 111–119 mm (4.4–4.7 in) in snout–vent length. The dorsum is lime green whereas the belly is white to yellow-white or cream. Lower lips, chest and front legs bear sparse white spots with dark frames; these are more dense on the flanks and hind legs. Fingers are transparent brown and have large, green adhesive discs. There is a prominent gland extending from behind each eye over the tympanum. The iris is dark gray.[4]


It is found throughout the Amazon Rain forest of northern Bolivia, western and northern Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Peru, southern and eastern Venezuela, and the Guianas. Occasionally, it is also found in the riparian forest area of the Cerrado, a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil.[1]

Habitat and behaviour[edit]

Phyllomedusa bicolor is a nocturnal, arboreal frog. Males call from trees in tropical humid forests. Female and male construct a leaf-nest above forest pools. When the eggs hatch from these nests, the tadpoles fall into the water, where they continue the development into adult frogs. Peak reproduction occurs during the rainy season.[4]


The IUCNendangered species database lists them in the "Least Concern" category, in view of their current wide distribution and large population.[1]

Medicinal use[edit]

The skin secretion of the frog contains the opioid peptidesdeltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin.[5][6][7] The secretion, known as Kambo or Sapo, has seen increasing popularity in cleansing rituals.[8][9]


  1. ^ abcClaudia Azevedo-Ramos; Enrique La Marca (2010). "Phyllomedusa bicolor". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T55841A11378972. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T55841A11378972.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018. 
  2. ^ abFrost, Darrel R. (2015). "Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert, 1772)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  3. ^"Phyllomedusa bicolor Giant Leaf Frog". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  4. ^ abc"Phyllomedusa bicolor". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  5. ^Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Falconieri-Erspamer G, et al. (July 1989). "Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 86 (13): 5188–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.5188. PMC 297583. PMID 2544892. 
  6. ^Melchiorri P, Negri L (1996). "The dermorphin peptide family". General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 27 (7): 1099–107. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02149-3. PMID 8981054. 
  7. ^Amiche M, Delfour A, Nicolas P (1998). "Opioid peptides from frog skin". EXS. 85: 57–71. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8837-0_4. PMID 9949868. 
  8. ^Leban, V; Kozelk, G; Brvar, M (2016). "The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) venom exposure". Toxicon. 120: 107–109. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.07.007. 
  9. ^Daly, M (May 10, 2016). "How Amazonian Tree Frog Poison Became the Latest Treatment for Addiction". Vice. 

External links[edit]

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